GP Comprehension Sample Application Question & Answer

GP Comprehension Sample Application Question (AQ)

In order to full understand and to analyse the requirements of the application question (AQ) of GP Paper 2, w shall run through a complete example of the sample question and offer a full response to it.

Yes, Don’t Impede Medical Progress
To many biologists, the recently announced creation of a cloned human embryo was no big deal. True, researchers at Advanced Cell Technology replaced the nucleus of a human egg with the genetic material of another person. And they got that cloned cell to start replicating. But their results were modest. It took 71 eggs to produce a single success, and in the best case, the embryo grew to only six cells before dying. That’s not a revolution. It’s an incremental step in understanding how early-stage cells develop.And it’s far from the 100 or so cells in a blastocyst, the hollow ball from which stem cells can be isolated. Scientists hope to coax embryonic stem cells into becoming specialized tissues such as nerve, muscle, or pancreatic islet cells. Therapeutic cloning, or nucleus transplantation, could make such treatments more effective.

In theory, it would work like this: Suppose I need new heart tissue or some insulin-secreting islet cells to counteract diabetes. You could take the nucleus from one of my cells, stick it in an egg cell from which the nucleus had been removed, let that develop into stem cells, and then trigger the stem cells to form the specific tissue needed. The new “cloned” tissue would be genetically mine and would not face rejection problems. It would function in my body as if it had grown there naturally, so I wouldn’t face a lifetime of immunosuppressant drugs.

But all of that is a long way off. ACT and others in the field are still doing very basic research, not developing clinical therapies. Indeed, because of the difficulty of obtaining eggs, therapeutic cloning may ultimately prove impractical for clinical treatments. It could be more important as a technique for understanding cell development or studying the mutations that lead to cancer. We simply don’t know right now. Science is about exploring the unknown and cannot offer guarantees.

Politics, however, feeds on fear, uncertainty, and doubt, and the word “cloning” arouses those emotions. While its scientific importance remains to be seen, ACT’s announcement has rekindled the campaign to criminalize nucleus transplantation and any therapies derived from that process. Under a bill passed by the House and endorsed by the president, scientists who transfer a human nucleus into an egg cell would be subject to 10-year federal prison sentences and $1 million fines. So would anyone who imports therapies developed through such research in countries where it is legal, such as Britain. The bill represents an unprecedented attempt to criminalize basic biomedical research.

The legislation’s backers consider the fear of cloning their best hope for stopping medical research that might lead to gene-level therapies. Opponents make three basic arguments for banning therapeutic cloning.

The first is that a fertilized egg is a person, entitled to full human rights. Taking stem cells out of a blastocyst is, in this view, no different from cutting the heart out of a baby. Hence, we hear fears of “embryo farming” for “spare parts.”

This view treats microscopic cells with no past or present consciousness, no organs or tissues, as people. A vocal minority of Americans, of course, do find compelling the argument that a fertilized egg is someone who deserves protection from harm. That view animates the anti-abortion movement and exercises considerable influence in Republican politics.

But most Americans don’t believe we should sacrifice the lives and well being of actual people to save cells. Human identity must rest on something more compelling than the right string of proteins in a petri dish, detectable only with high-tech equipment. We will never get a moral consensus that a single cell, or a clump of 100 cells, is a human being. That definition defies moral sense, rational argument, and several major religious traditions.

So cloning opponents add a second argument. If we allow therapeutic cloning, they say, some unscrupulous person will pretend to be doing cellular research but instead implant a cloned embryo in a woman’s womb and produce a baby. At the current stage of knowledge, using cloning to conceive a child would indeed be dangerous and unethical, with a high risk of serious birth defects. Anyone who cloned a baby today would rightly face, at the very least, the potential of an enormous malpractice judgment. There are good arguments for establishing a temporary moratorium on reproductive cloning.

But the small possibility of reproductive cloning does not justify making nucleus transfer a crime. Almost any science might conceivably be turned to evil purposes. This particular misuse is neither especially likely — cell biology labs are not set up to deliver fertility treatments — nor, in the long run, especially threatening.

Contrary to a lot of scary rhetoric, a healthy cloned infant would not be a moral nightmare, merely the not-quite-identical twin of an older person. (The fetal environment and egg cytoplasm create some genetic variations.) Certainly, some parents might have such a baby for bad reasons, to gratify their egos or to “replace” a child who died. But parents have been having children for bad reasons since time immemorial.Just as likely, cloned babies would be the cherished children of couples who could not have biological offspring any other way. These children might bear an uncanny resemblance to their biological parents, but that, too, is not unprecedented. Like the “test tube babies” born of in vitro fertilization, cloned children need not be identifiable, much less freaks or outcasts.
Why worry so much about a few babies? Because, say opponents, even a single cloned infant puts us on the road to genetic dystopia, a combination of Brave New World and Nazi Germany. A cloned child’s genetic makeup is too well known, goes the argument, and therefore transforms random reproduction into “manufacturing” that robs the child of his autonomy. This is where the attack broadens from nucleus transfer to human genetic engineering more generally. An anti-therapeutic cloning petition, circulated by the unlikely duo of conservative publisher William Kristol and arch-technophobe Jeremy Rifkin, concludes, “We are mindful of the tragic history of social eugenics movements in the first half of the 20th century, and are united in our opposition to any use of biotechnology for a commercial eugenics movement in the 21st century.”


But the “eugenics” they attack has nothing to do with state-sponsored mass murder or forced sterilization. To the contrary, they are the ones who want the state to dictate the most private aspects of family life. They are the ones who want central authorities, rather than the choices of families and individuals, to determine our genetic future. They are the ones who demand that the government control the means of reproduction. They are the ones who measure the worth of human beings by the circumstances of their conception and the purity of their genetic makeup. They are the ones who say “natural” genes are the mark of true humanity.

Winners in the genetic lottery themselves, blessed with good health and unusual intelligence, they seek to deny future parents the chance to give their children an equally promising genetic start. In a despicable moral equivalency, they equate loving parents with Nazis.

Biomedicine does have the potential to alter the human experience. Indeed, it already has. Life expectancy has doubled worldwide in the past century. Childbirth is no longer a peril to mother and infant. Childhood is no longer a time for early death. The pervasive sense of mortality that down through the ages shaped art, religion, and culture has waned.

Our lives are different from our ancestors’ in fundamental ways. We rarely remark on the change, however, because it occurred incrementally. That’s how culture evolves and how science works. We should let the process continue.

GP Passage Source:, Virginia Postrel 


QUESTION: Virginia Postrel say: “Biomedicine does have the potential to alter the human experience” (line 80)… “We should let the process continue” (line 85).

Do you subscribe to the author’s view that we should let the process continue? Explain the reasons for your choice, referring to material from the passage.

You should also use your own experiences and observations to support your answer. You may refer to the various applications of genetic engineering in your illustrations. [9]


GP Sample AQ – Suggested Complete Answer

I agree with the author’s point of view that stem cell research should be allowed to continue, considering that it can revolutionize the way we live. However, my stand is that it should be allowed only for therapeutic purposes and not to genetically engineer humans. This is because I believe in the worth of humans, that living human are not ‘lab-rates’ to be experimented with. Humans are worth more than these animals because we have been gifted with intelligence. Along with the intelligence, comes the responsibility of using it.

Firstly, referring to the example in paragraph 2 on diabetes, I agree that the research should continue for the benefit of those who suffer from illnesses. Having a neighbour who had to undergo the experience of chemotherapy to cure the early stages of cancer, I am sure that everyone, especially his parents will not want others to have to suffer like him. If we have the knowledge to liberate people from such suffering, we should not stop it. For the millions of people suffering from AIDS, this research could be the answer to their prayers. Thus, I strongly agree that stem cell research for therapeutic reasons should be allowed, instead of criminalized, as mentioned in paragraph 4.

The argument that the research would lead to the creation of an army of cloned humans should only remain as Star Wars fiction. This is because humans are beings capable of learning. George Santayara said,” Those who fail to remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” People surely remember the horrors of world war one, wWW2 and other tragic events like the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki or even the Holocaust. People will not certainly just sit back as some people try to create an army to take over the world. Such a scenario is not as simple as having a mad scientist producing clones in a well hidden laboratory.

Considering the state of research now, it would take many millions of dollars in funding and also of the world’s best scientists to work on it for years to create even one healthy living human clone. After all, the group of scientists who cloned Dolly took over a hundred attempts just get it right once. Such odds are not acceptable when human lives are at stake. No one would want to bear the responsibility or have the guilt of cloning a human which dies due to imperfection. Hence, I believe that the scenario in paragraph 9 is very unlikely and should not be used to argue against therapeutic cloning.

I also strongly believe that genetic engineering of Unborn babies should not be allowed. i agree only to the point of using research to make one’s life better but not to use cloning to create “better” humans. It ought not to be up to humans to decide how one’s life path should be determined. Only God has the authority to do that. Humans would never try to assume that role. It is not only highly unethical but the guilt would be unbearable to make a mistake in someone else’s life. Whether one is born smart, tall or healthy, should not be the purpose of genetics research. Rather, we as humans have lived with it all along and with this new knowledge, we could maybe make it a little easier to bear.

From a global perspective, situations such as embryo farming and other unethical practices can be avoided with strict monitoring from governing authorities. Therefore, I stress that we are fully responsible for the use of such knowledge as we must never let it get out of hand. The government can limit funding, permits or even facilities to ensure that only ethical and lawful research is done. With these guidelines in place, I believe therapeutic cloning should be allowed to continue for the betterment of mankind.


Questions to ponder over this sample answer for AQ:

1. Does this answer fulfill the question requirements?
2. How would rate the time management?
3. How would you rate the use of the language?
4. How is the scope and the depth of the issues raised?
5. Is the stand clear?
6. How many marks would you give this GP response?

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